Women’s Participation in Sacred Struggle and Resistance (Jihad)
Society/Politics < Article <

Another manifest revelation of women's social partnership in the field of politics is their active presence in the battlefields with the revealing of the divine verses and the attempt to establish the religious community, the arrogant, are not able to tolerate the servants' obedience to the Lord, seek help from ignorant fanatics and do not refrain from any aggression against the religious leader (guardian) and the believers. Under these circumstances, an obligation on the faithful to try as far as possible to support God's religion and their religious leader. Therefore, participation in Jihad (the sacred struggle and resistance) to the enemies of religion is considered obligatory and the immaculate Imams (P) frequently emphasized this from the Holy Quran, and its significance and value in faith or Islam.

    God has frequently ordered Jihad in the Holy Quran and has basically stated the characteristics of the Prophet (P) and his companions as being rigorous and harsh towards the pagans who are persecuting them. In turn the Prophet (P) and the immaculate Imams (P) have also stated the importance of Jihad. Imam Ali (P) said, ”Jihad is the pillar of religion" and Imam Al- Sadegh (P) said, ”Jihad in the company of any just Imam is an obligation." The philosophy of mandatory of Jihad has been stated in many verses and traditions including verse 141 of sura The house of Emran, "So that God may acquit the believers of their sins and make them pure, and destroy the unbelievers."  

    Types of Jihad
    Jihad may be discussed and examined in various forms. Sometimes controlling the commanding soul is also considered such as the great Jihad along with, a woman's honorable conduct towards her husband. In other words the death of a faithful Shiite, even in her bed, has been stated to be equal to the martyrdom of a faithful combatant in the battlefield. If we examine Jihad as fighting against the enemy in the battlefield it can be classified in several categories as follows:

Ul- Ghetaa has divided Jihad in the way of God into five categories:

1.    Jihad in order to preserve the Islam's identity.

2.    Jihad in order to stop enemy attack upon lives, property or the chastity of   Muslims.

3.    Jihad in order to defend and support the Muslims involved in war with the disbelievers.

4.    Jihad to eliminate the disbelievers' dominance over the Muslims.

5.    Jihad in order to invite the unbelievers to accept Islam (the early Jihad.)

       If fighting is from a position of defense, it also becomes obligatory for women to defend  Muslim's lives, property, chastity, thoughts and beliefs, and in their failure to do so, the All- Mighty God's reproof will lie upon them. In the battles that took place in from of early Jihad, although fighting against the enemy was not obligatory for women, they have participated frequently by providing logistical support for the combatants in the sacred war.

    In this section women's participation in Jihad is examined during several different time periods:

        Women and Jihad in the Era of Prophet-hood  

    During the establishment of the Islamic government in Medina, 75 battles took place (27 in Ghazvah, and 48 in Saryah): during these battles while men took part and fought with weapons, women did not refrain from participating and supporting Islam and the leadership to the extent of their developing capacity. In the history of the battles in the holy Prophet's (P) era, the names of several women are recorded who participated in Jihad in the company of his Holiness as nurses taking care of the wounded and supporters providing the combatants with food or transferring the pure bodies of the martyrs to their families. To name some: Umme Senan, Umme Salit, Nasibah Bente Kaab, Umme Attiah Ansariah, Rabia Bente Mauz, Lubabah, Laily Ghefari, Umme Salmah, Hind Bent Athathah, Saffiah, Umme Nania, Kaabiah Bent Saad, Umme Mata, Umme Salim Bent Malhan, Hind Bent Amrov Ebne Hazam, Umme Alaa, Ummel Fazl and other women also took part.

    Imam As-Sadegh (P) quotes a tradition from Ebne Abbass referring to the participation of women in Jihad in the company of the holy Prophet (P). He adds, ”No booties were especially allocated to women (they did not participate as combatants in battles.)"

    To further clarify the functions of these women the presence of a few of them in the Holy War is described:

    Nashiyeh from Bani Khazraj who swore allegiance to the holy Prophet (P) in the second Aghebah proved her loyalty to her leader during different crises. For instance, in the Battle of Uhud she under took the difficult duty of providing water for the combatants.

    In this battle history recalls, the men of weak faith who left their key position in the passage of the mountain, which was the only approach to reach and defeat the Muslims, in order to get to the spoils of war. Filled with fear, they left their leader alone during the enemy attack and ran away. There were only ten people left to defend the holy Prophet (P). One of them was Nasbiyah who threw away the water- skin seizing the weapon left by one of those who had run away and actively defended the holy Prophet (P) thereby receiving thirteen wounds on her body for which she constantly thanked God. Later she recounted the battle as follows: ”When I saw that the Prophet (P) was in danger of the enemy attack I tried to prevent the attacks by sword and occasionally by shooting arrows. Suddenly I saw one of the atheists was about to make an assault. Musab and I prevented his assault, but I received a wound on my shoulder the after effects of which remained for one year. The holy Prophet (P) observing the wound called one of my sons to help me and said, ”May God's blessings be on you and your family, may God have mercy on you". When my son dressed my wound, I started again to defend my leader when I found one of my sons was wounded. I immediately dressed his wound with the cloth I had brought to dress the wound of the combatants and I told my son to continue defending the holy Prophet (P).

    The holy Prophet (P) upon his arrival to Medina sent a person to her house to inquire about her health. When he was informed that she was well he was delighted. She asked the holy Prophet (P) to pray to God to include her among the Prophet's companions in paradise. The holy Prophet (P) prayed for her to God saying, ”O God, make them my companions in paradise". In addition to the Battle of Uhud, Nasbiyah also participated in the Battles of Khaibar and Hunain and a tradition says, ”she shall have the honor of the companionship of Mahdi (P) proving her sincerity when she will be revived to join his friends and helpers.

    Umme Senan came to the holy Prophet (P) when he was about to set out to fight the Jews of Khaibar and said, I would like to accompany you and render help in any way possible, such as providing water for the combatants, taking care of their outfit, treating the wounded, and helping the soldiers. ”The holy Prophet (P) said, ”May God bless you, there were other women who asked permission, to join us and were permitted, you can either accompany us or stay with your family. ”I said I would like to be in his company and he said, ”so you accompany my wife Umme Salameh."

    Umme Atiyah Ansariyah participated in about nine battles defending the holy Prophet (P). She performed duties such as treatment of the wounded, taking care of patients and cooking for the combatants. According to history after the battle of Uhud, the holy Prophet (P)  ordered Umme Salim and Umme Aliyah to treat Imam Ali (P) who received many wounds on his body.

    Salma who was an expert in nursing and midwifery and had assisted Maria and Khadijah (the wives of the holy Prophet (P)) and his daughter Fatemah (P) during childbirth participated in Battle of Khaibar rendering services. This learned woman was a narrator of the traditions of the holy Prophet (P), of his daughter Fatemah (P) and was also a successful mother in raising righteous children. Her sons from Abe Rafe named Ubaidullah and Ali were among the sincere friends and helpers of Imam Ali (P) and his representatives during his caliphate. Her son Ali was also among the administrators of the treasury during the government of Imam Ali (P).

    Safiyah, the aunt of the holy Prophet (P) participated in the battles of Uhud and Khandagh. In the latter she saw a Jew approach the Muslim's camp plotting against them. She called the poet Hessan and told him to fight that Jew but Hessan walked away. Therefore she decided to deal with him herself and took off a tent post assaulting and killing him.

    Hind Bent Amrovebne Hazam took part in the battle of Uhud and after the battle she put the pure bodies of three of her dear family members;her husband, Amrobebne Jamuh, her son Khala and her brother Abdullah Ebne Amrove on a camel and set out for Medina. When she met the Muslim women there she said to them with smooth brows, as if no disaster has befallen on her,”I have good tidings for you, the holy Prophet (P) t is alive, safe and sound, and to have this great benefit makes all calamities so slight, and to give you another glad tiding, God caused the unbelievers to leave as they were filled with anger".

    Her faith and sincerity makes her ask the holy prophet (P) when she meets him to pray God for her to attain companionship with her martyrs.

    In the battle of Khandagh Bent Abdullah Ebne Ravahah Ansari prepares food for the combatants. Hazrat Fatemah Zahra’s (P) actions too, are manifest evidence of women's opposition towards atheism and corruption. Hazrat Zahra (P) who bore three years of pain and suffering in Abi Talib's Sheah during childhood, after her mother's departure from this world, even though she was still a child, played the role of mother for her father and consoled him against the injury of the enemy, such that her father called her ”Umme Abiha", that is the mother of her father. At times she informed her father of the enemy's conspiracy to kill him and other times she was object of the enemy attack during her long journey, emigrating from Mecca to Medina. Even after her marriage to Imam Ali (P) she undertook a difficult mission by assuming the responsibility of running the house and taking care of the children in the absence of her combatant spouse who away from home most of the time and present in the battlefields.

    Hazrat Fatimah (P) also strived in fostering and tutoring her children in order to bring up great standard bearers of the truth. Therefore when she participated in her children's games, she taught them to fight against tyranny and oppression. It has been reported when she played with her children, she threw up her elder son Hassan saying, ”O my son, act like your father and break off the thread of oppression from the truth, worship God, the Beneficent, and be not the friend of oppressors.

    Those brought up by this lady are Imam Hassan (P), Imam Hussain (P), Hazrat Zainab (P), and Hazrat Kulthum (P).    Moreover Zahra (P) was also present in the battlefield and performed duties during the battle of Uhud washed away the blood from the holy prophet's face and dressed it with ointment; afterwards, she washed her father's and her brave husband's swords. In the battle of Khandagh too, she brought bread for her father after, a three- day hunger not to loose his strength in fighting the enemy. She also was present in the conquest of Mecca.

    Due to her particular sensitivity towards the political affairs and necessity of keeping her informed about this, the holy Prophet (P) usually put the significant political news at her disposal, for instance, when the Muslims returned from the battle of Hunain and the Surah ”The Help” was revealed, the holy Prophet (P) recited to Imam Ali (P) and Hazrat Fatemah (P),”When the help of God arrives and the victory…” Her sermons after the departure from this world of the holy Prophet (P), her night discourses with the Ansars (the helpers) of Medina, and finally her martyrdom all are evidence of her jihad and her greatness.

    In respect to the women's jihad in the battlefields numerous examples are given in other sources, in order to avoid repetition, therefore, they will not be mentioned again.

    The Era of the Government of Ali (P)

    Although there was a pause in the continuation of the pure Islamic government after the departure of the holy Prophet (P), ultimately the Islamic nation, after suffering twenty-five years of bitter experience of consequences due to disobeying the leader's commands, approached Imam Ali (P) and took on oath of allegiance to him agreeing his supervision and leadership.

    At the outset of the government of Imam Ali (P), those who had enjoyed worldly pleasures, accumulated gold and obtained power during twenty-five years political deviation could not tolerate his justice and equity or planned and executed wars against him.

    In the battles against the breakers of the allegiance and the corrupt, the presence of women is witness to verify who tried to support the Commander of the faithful. Some women tried illuminating the dormant mind of those who could not distinguish the truth from falsehood and others to persuade and encourage their husbands and children to participate in wars of support for Imam Ali (P), while others encouraged the Imam's army through their epic poems and words and stopping them from feeling weak and tired. This effort was the result of the Imam's illuminating words, "complain and fight in the way of God by your hands, and if you were not able to do that, then do it by your tongues, and if you could not, fight and strive in your hearts".

    In this chapter some examples are given of women's participation in politics and war during the caliphate of Imam Ali (P):

    Umme Salameh, the holy Prophet's (P) wife after the public allegiance of the people to Imam Ali (P) and breaking the oath of allegiance by the Nakethin (the breakers of allegiance) led by Ayeshah, another wife of the holy Prophet (P), gave her admonition and reminded her of the holy Prophet's (P) numerous traditions in the virtues of Imam Ali (P) in her presence. When she realized, however, that the statement of these facts did not cause Ayeshah to change her mind, she addressed some of the emigrants, the helpers (Muhajerin and Ansars) who were present, and proved the movement of the Nakethin to be false, causing Talha and Zubair to become enraged. She wrote a letter to Ayeshah and reminded her of Imam Ali's (P) bravery and the sharpness of her action. When she found her words ineffective, however, she wrote a letter to her lord Ali (P), and informed him of the situation. She sent her son, Umar Ebne Abi Salmah, who according to his mother was dearer than her own life, to join and support the Imam and recommended as follows, ”O my son, constantly be Imam Ali's (P) follower, by God there is no leader and Imam after the holy Prophet (P) save him.”

    Another helper and friend of the Imam in the battle of camel (Jamal) was Ummul Fazl who lived in Mecca. She gathered information about the mobilization of the Nakethin army and sent it to Imam Ali (p) to Medina by hiring a man called Zafar, informing him of the departure of Talhah, Zubair, and Ayeshah from Mecca.

    Laila, Ghefariah, a woman who accompanied the holy Prophet (P) in many battles and had dressed and taken care of the injured, admonished the army commander and told Ayeshah that fighting Imam Ali (P) is nothing rather than error. She mentioned to Ayeshah, the traditions she had directly heard from the holy Prophet (P) in praise of Imam Ali (P) so that she might rescue her from the abyss of that great conspiracy. For instance, the tradition by the holy Prophet (P) addressed and the last in keeping the oath of allegiance to me and the first whom I meet in the Day of Judgment.”

    Umme Zarih, too is a great woman who was present in the army of Imam Ali (P), and epic poems written by her in the battle, are recorded in the history.

    In addition, at the end of the battle of the camel forty seventy or more women from the followers of Imam Ali (P) were commissioned to escort Ayeshah (in the disguise of men) to return her to Medina in order to prevent future conspiracies against the Islamic government.

    After the battle of camel when complete peace had not yet been restored, the in the hope of regaining the lost power of the age of ignorance, under the pretext avenging murdered Caliph set out to attack the center of the Islamic government and in this way the battle of Seffin began.

    In the front of falsehood Haitham Ebne Mazjaa of Kufah was present. He was a high ranking commander and close counselor of Muaaviah. His wife was a Shiite and follower of Imam Ali (P) and had access to some important information due to being Haitham's wife. She wrote these pieces of news on a piece of paper, wrapped them in a rag and hung it surreptitiously from the horses' neck. She pretended then to prepare them for sale, sent them to the Imam's army and informed him of important information in this way.

    The battle of Seffin ended with disgrace for the Imam's army, pride for the opposing army due to the integrity of Muaaviah’s army and the disagreement among Imam Ali's army and disobedience to their Imam. Ultimately the ignorant cunning leaders returned proudly the vast area of Sahm (Syria, Damascus.)

    In this critical battle women had insight and foresightedness that is noted in their sermons forewarning the soldiers of the Imam's army stating that disobeying the Imam's commands might have dreadful consequences. Among these ladies were: Ummul Khair Bareghiyah, Sudah Hamadani, Zarghaa Bente Uday Ben Ghalib, Ummul Baraa Bente Safvan, Akrashah Bente Atash, and Bekarah Helaliah.

    They tried by their epic words and songs to encourage the Imam's army and persuade them to resist. In this discourse, we have chosen some examples of these wise and epic sermons:

    Ummulkhair Bareghiyah who was riding on a gray camel in the battle of Seffin, had a Yemenite cloth on her shoulder and a whip in her hand, whenever she saw a weakness on the ”O people, fear God, surely the day of Judgment is a great day, truly God has manifested the truth and made clear the signs, illuminated the way and uplifted the flag of guidance. God has not left you in the blindness of ignorance and darkness. Where are you fleeing? May God have mercy on you? Are you fleeing from the commander of the faithful or escaping from fighting the enemies of Islam? Have you not heard this divine verse, ”We will try you, in order to make a known those who fight for Islam and those who are patient". Afterwards she addressed the Imam's army and forewarned them from fleeing from the enemy front, while enumerating Imam Ali's (P) moral virtues one after another. Finally she tried to clarify the nature of the enemy for the soldiers of the commander of the faithful.

    The oration of this brave lady creates such a fire of anger and vengeance in the heart of Muaaviah, that several years later in the apex of power and absolute government, Muaaviah summons her and addressing her angrily reminds her of her sermon threatening her with death. With a standing bravery, this woman firstly calls him the son of liver devouring Hind and refuses to say, the Commander of the faithful, saying, ”By God, O the son of Hind, I will not write if God causes this murder to be carried out by a person to provide my prosperity through his wretchedness".  

    The greatness of these words can be understood when the time of their statement is taken into consideration. When the followers of Imam Ali (P), wherever they were found, captured, imprisoned or placed under severe economic pressure. Consequently many of the Imam's companions sold their faith for gold and or joined the companions of Muaaviah.

    Other female orators at the battle of Seffin also after being summoned by Muaaviah during the apex of his authority and were threatened. Proudly and without any fear all stated that they considered their sermons as a source of privilege and pride. For instance, one of them explained how justice was buried by the martyrdom of Imam Ali (P), and another one responding the angry words to Muaaviah said, ”You share Imam Ali (P) in any bloodshed". He said, ”You gave me a glad tiding. ”Another woman said, ”By God, I am the composer and singer of poems in praise of Imam Ali (P), I will not deny it and I declare now that there will not exist any good and blessing after Imam Ali's martyrdom".

    In continuation of the political lives of the Innocent Imams (P) we witness two short-time battles during Imam Hassan (P) and Imam Hussain's (P) leadership of which the presence of women in the event of Ashura is vivid and pronounced.

    The Participation of Women in the Uprising of Imam Hussain  (P)

     Firstly, we will study women's political participation in the epic of Imam Hussain's uprising in the performance of Tuaah.

    After Ebne Ziad entered Kufah, created severe fear and terror of several thousand people from Kufah whom had taken an oath of allegiance to Muslem Ben Aghil, preferred fear of the creatures to fear of the Creator and all unmanly men deserted him. In this great account only one woman will appear to guard the Imamate and support her Imam by giving shelter to his representative heroically and without any fear from the fierce enemy.

    Tauaah who is a disciple of the school of Assiah (Firon’s wife), has spent a lifetime in the service of Ashath Ben Ghais, a hypocrite. She is the slave girl of a man who many times betrayed Imam Ali (P) and his followers. His daughter Juadah was among the commanders of Ebne Ziad's army in the war against Imam Hussain (P). In addition, her son Belal is among the ignoble people who joined Ebne Ziad and finally showed the Muslim’s safe haven to Ebne Ziad's men. Tauaah tried to protect and support the mancalled Muslim, when he was assulted by Ebne Ziad's men. When they made attack on Muslim from behind, she warned him to defend, himself and when the Imam's representative was suffering from severe thirst, she provided water for him.

To name the political effort of other Shiite women, we can mention the assembly of an anti- Yazid society. It is from this place that a number of people traveled to Karbala in order to support Imam Hussain (P) in his uprising. Here we witness the honorable presence of women beside the pure household of Imam Hussain (P) as recorded in history. When Imam Hussain (P) permitted his companions to leave saying, ”Those whose family are with them, take them to a safe place tonight because tomorrow all our men will be killed and my household will be held captives". The cry of Ali Ebne Mazhar's wife was heard from her tent saying, ”O son of Hazrat Zahra (P), are we not worthy of serving your sisters and daughters? ”The sincere words of this woman caused Imam Hussain (P) to permit the women to either choose to leave or stay grieve with his household. These women performed their utmost to support their Imam in his great epic uprising. At times they encouraged their husbands to participate in this uprising. Among these women were Dailam the wife of Zahir and Ghamar the wife of Abdullah Ebne Umair Kalbi, etc. Other times they consoled the Imam's family who played a great part, after the event of Ashura, in order to make the memory of this epic permanent in history.

    No tongue is capable of describing the greatness of the epic of Imam Hussain's (p) household, Hazrat Zainab (P), whose entire life was affectedby the frequent witnessing of martyrdom. From her childhood, she witnessed her mother's martyrdom, the blood- filled beard of her father, and the blood clots vomited by her elder brother and at Karbala the martyrdom of seven brothers and five nephews. On the afternoon of Ashura, initially, the smallest calamity for her was the martyrdom of her two sons; Aun and Muhammad. Lastly, even more difficult was that in addition to bearing the burden of the pains of the martyrdom of her dear ones and the sufferings of the captivity of the household, she had to under take the great responsibility of conveying the message of the message of Ashura that, ”Everyday is Ashura and every land is Karbala".

    Fatemah Bentul Hossain (P) witnessed her husband's combat and his numerous wounds made all people presume he was killed  during a short time in a bloody evening as she witnessed the martyrdom of her father, two brothers, six uncles and three cousins.

    Fatemah Bentual Hassan (P) also witnessed the martyrdom of three brothers, seven uncles, and two cousins and the severe illness of her husband, Imam Al-Sajjad (P) and the suffering of the great thirst and hunger of her Little son, Imam Al-Albagher (P). This lady is the one about whom Imam Sadegh (P) said, ”A truthful and righteous woman unique in the household of Imam Hassan (P)".

    Sakinah Bentul Hussain whose father called her, ”Absorbed in God", was a newly bride who witnessed the martyrdom of her husband, her father, two brothers, six uncles, and three nephews.

    Rughayah, Muslem Ebne Aghil's wife who had just received the heart- rending news of the martyrdom of her husband, stayed with the Imam's household and witnessed the martyrdom of her two sons, Abdullah and Abu Bakr. Apart from the glorious presence of the Imam's household, the support of the women who accompanied him has a special splendor.

    Ghamar the wife of Abdullah Ebne Umair who persuaded her husband to go to Karbala and joined Imam's army in his company, seeing the handless and footless body of her husband wiped out the blood from his face and said, ”Blessed is your entrance to paradise, I pray God to grantee your companionship in paradise". Her words were not still complete when the slave of Shemr struck a mace on her head at Shemr's command and thus, her name was recorded in the list of the martyrs of Karbala.

    Another example is about Umme Khalaf the wife of Muslim Ebne Ausajah who secretly left Kufah together with her husband and son to support Imam Hussain (P). After the dreadful martyrdom of her husband in Ashura, she who was not satisfied with her dedicating dear husband and was not able to sacrifice herself in the way of her leader sent her son to the “Slaughter house of love". Knowing that witnessing the martyrdom of her son was more dreadful than giving her own life, she preferred to sacrifice her attachments and prove her sincerity to her leader and master. She, therefore, addressed her son and said, ”O my son stand up and help the son of the Prophet’s (P) daughter (P) and prefer his support to your own health, and know that if you prefer your health to his support, I will never be pleased with you". Khalaf asked permission from Imam (P) but he said, ”If you go to fight the enemy and be killed, your mother will be left alone and helpless in the deserts". He answered, ”My mother herself has persuaded me to fight your enemies". Upon hearing this, the Imam (P) permitted him to fight. During the battle further encouraged her thirsty son and prevent him to be discouraged by the difficulties of fighting, she shouted after him, ”I give you glad tidings of drinking from the pleasant water of the Kauthar fountain very soon". After fighting for sometime and killing several men of the enemy Khalaph attained martyrdom and the enemy threw his head towards his mother. Accordingly, she with a great saturated spirit said, ”Well done, O the source of my heart's happiness and the brightness of my eyes". The epics created by the mother and the wife of Vahab Ebne Hubad, Bahriah the mother of Amrovebne Junadah, and Husneiyah, the mother of Munjah have each one its own splendor and greatness, been are recorded in history.

    After the Martyrdom of Imam Hussain (P)

    After the martyrdom of Imam Hussain (P) and beginning of the period of ”dissimulation” due to the weakness of insight, lack of sincerity in faith, and insufficiency of supporters, no Jihad (battle) took place under the leadership of the Innocent Imam (P). The movements to revive the truth were also defeated some of which were confirmed and praised by the Innocent Imam (P). Women also participated in some of these movements including the uprising of Zaid Ebne Ali Ebne Hussain (P). The Jihad of Zaid and his fellow combatants is so great that many years before, when the holy Prophet (P) talked about the coming events he said, ”A man from my offsprings will raise and will be killed in Kanassah of Kufah. He will call people to truth and some faithful Muslims follow him” and added, ”The friends and supporters of Zaid have a bright light on their forehead, hands and they will be admitted to paradise without reckoning. ”Imam Al-Sadegh too, said after he heard of the martyrdom of Zaid, ”By God, my uncle and his fellow combatants traversed the way of the martyrs for truth. They set their feet in the path of Ali Ebne Abi Talib (P) and his companions".

    The historians have recorded the name of a number of women among the supporters of Zaid, who poises the births mentioned in the traditions. For instance, as stated in the historical sources, during the uprising of Zaid Ebne Ali, (P) some of the women of Kufah came to him and asked permission to join his army but Zaid did not accept for some reasons. A few of the women who had helped him were severely punished after his martyrdom. For example, they ordered to cup off the hands and feet of the woman who had helped in the uprising of Zaid and thus she attained martyrdom. Another woman who had given shelter to Zaid's daughter by her mother's help was whipped five hundred times.

    According to another narration from the history, a mother woman who had proudly married her daughter to Zaid was reprimanded by Yousuf Ben Umar. She said she had married her daughter to him because of his moral virtues. Yousuf ordered to tear her dress and whip her. While she was being whipped she cursed Yousuf until she ultimately died and was burieD secretly by her relatives in the cemetery.

    During the Advent
    During the period of the growth of the Islamic community when the Iranian nation, obeying the commands of Imam Khomein (R.A) dedicated sincerely their lives and property whether in fighting the king or during the eight years of war with Iraq frequently witnessed the women's support in confronting the enemy. Imam Khomeini (R.A) appreciated this effort and said, ”The Iranian women were the fore runners of this movement and acted like the women in the beginning of Islam". He also added, ”I extend my greetings to all sisters and brothers, women and men, who continue their brave life and do not fear from being slain in the way of God by the enemies of God. Those who defend their own dear country for God's sake by bare hands and teeth will encourage the combatants of Islam. They dedicate all they have in the way of sincerity and with frequent sacrifice have recorded and will record frequent scenes of bravery and courage during the history of their incessant campaign. They teach the oppressed of the world, a lesson of sacrifice and bravery. Of course, the promise of God to the oppressed of the world is true. I extend my greetings to you who have disgraced the superpowers and express my humility for your patience and perseverance.” The supreme leader has also stated, ”Their part in the Revolution was very valuable and determining and it was also a determining factor in the war and, God willing, it will be so in the future".  

    Women's cooperation during the war has provided various manifestations, including of female doctors and nurses being at frontline in order to treat and care of the injured, rendering aid and service to the combatants in the front or front supporting areas, by persuading their men to attend the front and undertaking the responsibility of running the household, taking care of the children in their husbands' absence, and at other times participating in paying a visit, supporting, and rendering help to the combatant's families.

    Another clear manifestation of their sincerity was their oath of allegiance to their leader and their promise to show patience in case of the martyrdom or captivity of their husbands or other dear ones. It is evident also by their encouraging of a nation to fight the enemy with their speech and pens, giving financial support to the combatants and participation in the reconstruction of the war-stricken areas.

    It is by continuing this incessant campaign by women, that the promise of God will become a reality, the government of justice will be established under the guidance and leadership of the world's savior and the help of his three hundred and some special companions. These, who despite the all-round attacks of Falsehood, have kept their hearts in the harbor of divine verses and have offered their enthusiasm with longing and waiting for the advent of their pure promised Master in order to rush to join him. With these helpers of Allah starting from the House of Allah (Mecca) under the leadership of the friend and representative of Allah, the divine government in the world may be established. God willing!

    In some traditions the number of this apparently small group, each of whom is indeed a nation, has been mentioned as being three hundred and some including fifty women.

In another tradition Imam Sadegh (P) states the function of some of these women as follows:

The duty of thirteen of the women who are among the companions of Imam Mahdi (P) is to treat the injured and to take care of the injured patients similar to their roles in the battles in the life of the holy Prophet. (P)

Authors: Zahra Ayatollahi
Content Type: Article
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