Name of Chapter Ar-Ra'd , 3 verses Number 3

وَهُوَ الَّذِي مَدَّ الأَرْضَ وَجَعَلَ فِيهَا رَوَاسِيَ وَأَنْهَارًا وَمِن كُلِّ الثَّمَرَاتِ جَعَلَ فِيهَا زَوْجَيْنِ اثْنَيْنِ يُغْشِي اللَّيْلَ النَّهَارَ إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

Translation (Tahereh Saffarzadeh): And Allah is the One Who spread out the earth and set therein strong and firm mountains and flowing rivers and streams and He produced all kinds of fruits. Allah is the One Who causes the night to cover the day; verily, in all these are signs [of Allah's Power of Creation] for men of wisdom.
Translation (M.H. Shakir): And He it is Who spread the earth and made in it firm mountains and rivers, and of all fruits He has made in it two kinds; He makes the night cover the day; most surely there are signs in this for a people who reflect.

Source: Tafsir-e-Nemouneh (Exemplary) in Brief, Volume: 3, Page: 306-309, Chapter: 13, Surah: Ar-Ra'd, Verse: 3

Interpreter: Makarem Shirazi, Naser

Translator: Mansoor Aminy _ Baghbadorani

Publication Place: Amir-Al-Momenin Seminary, Qom - Iran









VERSE NO. 1 -4

      The Sureh begins with saying that there is no room for any doubt, that whatever of verses of Qurän has been inspired to you, are mere truth, and of surety from your Lord, but most of the fanciful people will not believe it! When man is left alone in freedom, and follows not a truthful leader, he will soon go astray, following his own caprices, and eventually will have the worst of fates.

      The attentions are then attracted to the greatness and importance of the skies, and the planets that are supported on no visible pillars, which implies that there are invisible forces like the gravity that holds them on their orbits, in order to spin or move on.



      When the verse under discussion (NO.2) revealed to our prophet, the Ptolemaic System of geocentric theory was the accepted explanation of the planetry motions....

      In the simplest form of the system, each planet was supposed to move uniformly in a small circle, while the center of the circle moved along the circumference of a larger circle, which was centered in the earth. Such combination of circular paths centered in the earth, were intended to produce the observed looped courses of the five bright stars around the heavens, and the apparently variable speeds of sun and moon as well.

      With correct specification, it should be possible to predict the places of those bodies among the stars for any desired date. This was the main purpose of the system.

      The Ptolemaic system remained the accepted explanation of the working of the universe for about 1500 years! Finally in the 17th century the work of JOHANNES KEPLER proved that Ptolemaic System was untenable, and that the planets revolved around the sun rather than around the earth!

      Many centuries after the Ptolemaic theory it was proved that, each of the planets that are in the heavens, move in their orbits without any pillar or support, and are stationed in their orbits, by the attractive and centrifugal forces, one dependant on the planet's mass and the other on its speed of movement.

      An interesting tradition has been narrated from Hazrat Imam Ali (AS) who said:-

      ``These stars that are in the skies are cities like the cities on the earth, and each star is connected to the other star by a pillar made out of light beam!''

      After the statement on the creation of the heavens and the earth, mention is made of their subjugation:ِ

      ``He then sat upon the throne of power to control them and so he subdued the sun and the moon, which are running up to an appointed term.''

      All the planets obey the natural laws that God has legislated for them, and all of them serve man and other living creatures that live in the planets round about. In them all, are signs that God cares for man. and for all his creatures and creations. Allah also explains His signs both in nature, and by His revelations which are sent down to Man through God's Messengers, so as to ensure Man that he has to return ultimately to his Lord, and also he has to answer for his actions.

      The verses then turn the attention of man from the skies down to his home which is the earth:-

      ``It is Allah Who spread the earth upon the huge body of oceans, and set upon the earth firm mountains and He caused the rivers to flow down. He created all the fruits in pairs, and caused the night to cover the day to provide the means of rest and repose.''

      When the earth spins around its pivot, the mountains help the gravity to hold the air sphere over the globe, so as to keep everything that is on the earth still and motionless; and besides that, the mountains are the stores and sources of water for Man's irrigations and cultivations.

      The clause of the verse that:- OF EVERY FRUIT HE MADE TWO PAIRS implies the sex in plants, that they too, have their reproductive means of male and female, just like the animals.

      On the other hand, the life of the creatures on the earth depends much upon the difference of the night and day, which are other signs showing the knowledge and the ordainment of God. Without the day light no perfect work can be done, and without the dark night no good sleep and rest can be obtained. Besides that; a continuous sunshine or darkness, will result in an extraordinary heat or coldness, which will easily remove the life out of the earth.

      The last verse (NO.4) refers to some botany and geological points, that each one is a sign of a predetermined order that prevails. That of the neighbouring tracts of the earth with different qualifications, some with salty soil and some of fertile sweet land; a part being soft and another part hard! Each of them are made suitable for certain use and products, in order to satisfy Man's and other creature's needs and necessities.

      Then the reference is made to gardens with various fruits and harvests, such as grapes, dates, and corns, and etc; the plants of which are grown in different manners, some out of a single root, and some otherwise; and many form into bunches. All such variety of fruits and products, are watered with the same water, and fed with the same soil, and nourished with the same sun light and heat, while some of them excel some others in being eatable. All these are the signs of God which may prove that Resurrection and meeting our Lord's Mercy, in another life to come, is something sure and very easy for Him to do.



There are amazing verses in the Qurän that uncovers many hidden scientific laws and rules! As an instance we may refer to the above verse (NO.3) once again:-

      ``And of every fruit we have created two pairs.''

      The verse clearly alludes to sex in plants, like the animals and all living creatures, who are made of male and female. So also, in other verses Allah has said to have made the sun, the moon, the stars, and the heavens and the earth; with all that exists in them, subservient to Man! This implies that man is the most developed creature of the world, and can make use of everything for his own benefit and welfare, if he falls not down, and lowers himself not than the beasts!

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